Research Citations



Genetic determinants of type 2 diabetes.

Froguel P,  Velho G.

Recent Prog Horm Res. 2001;56:91-105.



The D2 dopamine receptor gene: a review of association studies in alcoholism and phenotypes.   Noble EP.

Alcohol. 1998 Jul;16(1):33-45.



Gasztonyi Z.Orv Hetil. 1998 Feb 1;139(5):247-9.

[Article in Hungarian]

OKI, Humangenetikai es Teratologai Osztaly, WHO Orokletes Artalmak Tarsadalmi Megelozese Egyuttmukodesi Kozpont, Budapest.



Genetics of suicides. Family studies and molecular genetics.

Roy A,  Rylander G,  Sarchiapone M.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Dec 29;836:135-57



Aggression and anger-related traits associated with a polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene.

Manuck SB,  Flory JD,  Ferrell RE,  Dent KM,  Mann JJ, Muldoon MF.

Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Mar 1;45(5):603-14.




Update on cancer control in women.

Boyle P, Maisonneuve P, Autier P.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000 Aug;70(2):263-303.



[New knowledge about cancer and nutrition. 5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day prevent cancer]

Zurcher G.

MMW Fortschr Med. 1999 Sep 23;141(38):40-3.



Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk.

Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Jan 5;92(1):61-8.


Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.


Abstract: In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber.  Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

Author:  Steinmetz KA •Potter JD   Date Of Publication: 1996 Oct  Journal Volume: 96   Page Numbers: 1027 through 1039  Number of References: 262



Fruit and vegetables, and human cancer.


Abstract: A large body of evidence indicates that high intakes of fruit and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of cancer at several sites. The association is generally most marked for epithelial cancers, apparently stronger for those of the digestive and respiratory tracts, and somewhat weaker for hormone-related cancers. The relationship between frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruit and cancer risk was analysed using data from a series of case-control studies conducted in northern Italy since 1983. The relative risks (RRs) for most common neoplasms ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 for the highest compared with the lowest tertile of vegetable intake. Protective effects were highest for epithelial neoplasms, but were also observed for hormone-related neoplasms. Fruit was related to reduced RRs for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, larynx, as well as of the urinary tract. There was a specific and consistent pattern of protection by tomatoes, a typical Mediterranean food, with RRs between 0.4 and 0.7, most notably for gastrointestinal neoplasms. No significant association was observed between fruit and vegetable consumption and non-epithelial lymphoid neoplasms. For digestive tract cancer, population attributable risks for low intake of fresh vegetables and fruit ranged from 15 to 40% of all cases in this Mediterranean population. Combined with tobacco and alcohol, the population attributable risks exceeded 85% for men and 55% for women for upper digestive and respiratory tract neoplasms. Thus, from a public health viewpoint, epidemiological evidence indicates that a substantial reduction in epithelial cancer risk can be obtained by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption.

Author:  La Vecchia C •Tavani A  Date Of Publication: 1998 Feb  Journal Volume: 7  Page Numbers: 3 through 8



Differential effects of acute mental stress on interdigestive secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, and gastroduodenal motility.
Holtmann G, Singer MV, Kriebel R, Stacker KH, Goebell H.
Dig Dis Sci 1989 Nov;34(11):1701-7

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Essen, Federal Republic of Germany.

Mental stress and gastric acid secretion. Do personality traits influence the response?
Holtmann G, Kriebel R, Singer MV.
Dig Dis Sci 1990 Aug;35(8):998-1007

Department of Medicine, University of Essen, Federal Republic of Germany.
(Detailed analysis revealed that mental stress induced contrary changes of gastric acid output in different subjects. About half the individuals reacted with a decrease (up to 60%) and the other half with an increase (up to 60%) in acid output.)



ANXIETY AND ANGER ® vulnerability to illnesses, compromise the immune system, increase lipid levels, exacerbate pain, and increase the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and from all sources of death

The terrible twos–anger and anxiety. Hazardous to your health.

Suinn RM.

Am Psychol. 2001 Jan;56(1):27-36.




The role of psychosocial factors in the development of breast carcinoma: Part II.

Price MA, Tennant CC, Butow PN, Smith RC, Kennedy SJ, Kossoff MB, Dunn SM.

Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):686-697.


ANXIETY  &  Heart Disease


Sustained anxiety and 4-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

Paterniti S, Zureik M, Ducimetiere P, Touboul PJ, Feve JM, Alperovitch A.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Jan;21(1):136-41.



Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease, their importance compared with other risk factors and gender differences in sensitivity.

Hallman T, Burell G, Setterlind S, Oden A, Lisspers J.

J Cardiovasc Risk. 2001 Feb;8(1):39-49.




  1. Hyman et al., The Effects of relaxation training on clinical symptoms: a meta-analysis.

Nursing Research, Vol. 38(1989),pp.216-220

A period of quiet, focused relaxation each day may lower blood pressure, relieve anxiety, improve nighttime sleep, and decrease the discomfort of chronic headache and other painful conditions.



J.W. Hoffman, et al.,  Reduced sympathetic nervous system responsivity associated with the relaxation response.

Science, vol.215(1982), pp.190-192






Diet and cancer.

Willett WC.

Oncologist. 2000;5(5):393-404.


Mild to moderate OA benefits from wt-bearing exer. (¯ impairment, improving function, and preventing disability

Is exercise effective treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee?

Petrella RJ.            Br J Sports Med. 2000 Oct;34(5):326-31.

Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.




Curr Rheumatol Rep 2001 Dec;3(6):520-3 Exercise in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Clyman B. VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, 534 Hillgreen Drive, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, USA. [email protected]

Few medical professionals would dispute the obvious health benefits afforded by regular exercise if pursued judiciously and in moderation. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, diabetes, depression, and fibromyalgia are a few of the many disorders in which exercise plays a key role in management. Less well-appreciated until recently is the beneficial effect exercise may have in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Previously, rest and inactivity seemed to be the prevailing treatment strategy until it was recognized that this approach was ineffective and contributed further to the patient’s disability and loss of function. New trial data support the value of physical exercise whether it involves aerobic or resistance-type training. The studies are not without statistical and methodologic imperfections. Still, the evidence favoring an exercise intervention as part of the OA treatment plan is impressive. It remains for the clinician to select an appropriate exercise routine that meets the strength, balance, flexibility, and aerobic needs of the patient. The clinician then monitors and evaluates the patient’s response to this activity with the same exactness used in following pharmacologic therapy.


Nurs Clin North Am 2000 Mar;35(1):209-21 The role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Sharkey NA, Williams NI, Guerin JB. Associate Professor, Center for Locomotion Studies and Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802-5702, USA. [email protected]

Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are two distinctly different rheumatic conditions that target elderly, primarily female, populations. This article examines the scientific evidence supporting the use of exercise as a specific therapeutic modality, the general physiologic and psychological benefits of exercise, and the exercise programs currently recommended to combat these prevalent musculoskeletal disorders. Exercise is a valuable adjunct to treatment programs aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. In addition to its potential impact on the disease processes themselves, exercise improves general health and well being, enhances quality of life, and preserves physical independence.



Ann Intern Med 1999 Jul 6;131(1):21-6 Walking to work and the risk for hypertension in men: the Osaka Health Survey.

For every 26.3 men who walk more than 20 minutes to work, one case of hypertension will be prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Walking to work and other types of physical activity decreased the risk for

Cephalalgia 1998 Sep;18(7):436-48 Trigger points and myofascial pain: toward understanding how they affect headaches. Davidoff RA. Department of Neurology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Florida 33101, USA. [email protected] Myofascial pain, referred from hyperalgesic trigger points located in skeletal muscle and its associated fascia, is a common cause of persistent regional pain. Clinical and experimental literature on manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of pain from myofascial trigger points is reviewed with priority given to how pain referred from trigger points generates, triggers, and maintains headaches–especially chronic and recurrent ones. Because treating myofascial problems may be the only way to offer complete relief from certain types of headache, clinicians must learn to diagnose and manage trigger points in neck, shoulder, and head muscles.


Week 1, Evening 2


Stores(temporarily) 1/2 – 3/4 of absorbed nutrients

Guyton, Arthur C., Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed., W.B. Saunders Co., 1991, p.695




Nutritional requirements for detoxication of environmental chemicals.
Parke DV.Food Addit Contam 1991 May-Jun;8(3):381-96

School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

(calories, protein, lipids and lipotropes, vitamins and minerals, are reviewed in the context of their contribution to the mechanisms of detoxication.)


Fasting-induced depletion of glutathione in the aging mouse.
Vogt BL, Richie JP Jr.   Biochem Pharmacol 1993 Jul 20;46(2):257-63

American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595.




Smyth JM, Stone AA, Hurewitz A, Kaell A: Effects of writing about stressful experiences on symptom reduction in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial.

Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 281:1304-1309

(A sample of 61 patients with asthma and 51 with rheumatoid arthritis wrote about either highly stressful or emotionally neutral events for 20 minutes a day on 3 consecutive days. Four months after the intervention, those in both disease categories who wrote about traumatic events were significantly improved compared with those writing about neutral events.)




Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 2001 Jul;56(2):535-40 [Relationships between walking hours, sleeping hours, meaningfulness of life (ikigai) and mortality in the elderly: prospective cohort study] [Article in Japanese] Seki N. Department of Public Health, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata City 951-8510, Japan. [email protected]

The purpose of this study was to determine lifestyle factors in the elderly that affected longevity, using a population-based prospective study. The participants were 440 men and 625 women aged 60 to 74 living in a rural Japanese community. The baseline data such as age, sex, present illness, walking hours per day, sleeping hours per day, alcohol consumption, a history of smoking, and “ikigai” (meaningfulness of life) were collected in July 1990. During 90 months of follow-up from July 1990 to December 31 1997, there were 123 deaths. By Cox’s multivariate hazard model adjusted age, sex, and medical histories, walking > or = 1 hour/day (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.91) and an “ikigai” (HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99) lowered the risk for all-cause mortality independently. In regard to hours of sleep, the cumulative survival curve showed that 7 hours/day was the border and sleeping > or = 7 hours/day lowered the risk (HR = 0.49 95% CI 0.33-0.74). Based on the findings in this study, walking > or = 1 hour/day, sleeping > or = 7 hours/day, and “ikigai” are important factors for longevity in the elderly.


J Epidemiol 2000 Mar;10(2):87-93 Sleep patterns and total mortality: a 12-year follow-up study in Japan. Kojima M, Wakai K, Kawamura T, Tamakoshi A, Aoki R, Lin Y, Nakayama T, Horibe H, Aoki N, Ohno Y. Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Japan.

A population-based cohort study was conducted to assess the relationship between total mortality and self-reported sleep patterns as regards not only to sleep duration but also subjective sleep quality. A total of 5,322 inhabitants in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, completed a self-administered questionnaire on health status and lifestyles including habitual sleep patterns, and were followed-up for an average of 11.9 years. Relative risks were computed by using Cox proportional hazards models. Both longer and shorter sleep, compared to 7-8 hour-sleep, was related to significantly increased risk of total mortality in males (relative risk [RR] for > or = 10 hours = 1.94, and RR for < 7 hour = 1.90), but not in females. Females complaining of poor awakening state experienced a higher mortality risk compared to those who woke up normally (RR: 1.97). Males who usually fell asleep easily showed a marginally lower mortality risk compared to those who fell asleep normally (RR: 0.70). Female users of sleeping pills were at an elevated risk (RR: 1.89). These findings were almost unchanged after adjustment for sleep duration and other confounders. Poor self-reported quality of sleep seemed to be associated with an increased risk of mortality independently of sleep duration.


Neurology 1997 Apr;48(4):904-11 Habitual sleep patterns and risk for stroke and coronary heart disease: a 10-year follow-up from NHANES I. Qureshi AI, Giles WH, Croft JB, Bliwise DL.

Sleep Disorders Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. BACKGROUND: Habitual sleep patterns may independently affect morbidity and mortality. However, the effect of habitual sleep patterns on the risk for stroke and coronary heart disease is unclear. METHODS: We evaluated the association between sleep duration and daytime somnolence (often or almost always taking daytime naps) with the incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease in a national cohort of 7,844 adults who participated in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to examine these relationships during the 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: After adjusting for differences in age, race, gender, education, cigarette smoking, body mass index, serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus, the risk for stroke was increased in persons who reported sleeping greater than 8 hours at night compared with persons who slept between 6 and 8 hours (relative risk [RR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 2.0). Daytime somnolence was also associated with stroke incidence (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8). Persons who reported both greater than 8 hours of sleep and daytime somnolence were at the greatest risk for stroke (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.1). Similar results were also found for coronary heart disease, although the results did not reach statistical significance in the multivariate adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual sleep patterns have significant effects on the risk for stroke.


J Psychosom Res 1997 Jun;42(6):583-96 Comment in: J Psychosom Res. 1997 Jun;42(6):513-4. Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Pilcher JJ, Ginter DR, Sadowsky B. Department of Psychology, Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois 61625, USA. [email protected]

Two studies assessed whether measures of health, well-being, and sleepiness are better related to sleep quality or sleep quantity. In both studies, subjects completed a 7-day sleep log followed by a battery of surveys pertaining to health, well-being, and sleepiness. In subjects sleeping an average of 7 hours a night, average sleep quality was better related to health, affect balance, satisfaction with life, and feelings of tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion than average sleep quantity. In addition, average sleep quality was better related to sleepiness than sleep quantity. These results indicate that health care professionals should focus on sleep quality in addition to sleep quantity in their efforts to understand the role of sleep in daily life.


Occup Med 1990 Apr-Jun;5(2):209-37 Health effects of sleep deprivation. Naitoh P, Kelly TL, Englund C. Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California 92138-9174.

This report provides information supporting the conclusion that sleep deprivation produces only very small biomedical effects. It nonetheless concludes that chronic partial sleep deprivation may contribute to gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular disease, and other medical conditions that occur more often in shiftworkers than in permanent dayworkers.


Sleep 1996 Sep;19(7):583-8 Relationship between sleepiness and general health status. Briones B, Adams N, Strauss M, Rosenberg C, Whalen C, Carskadon M, Roebuck T, Winters M, Redline S. Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland VA Medical Center, Ohio, USA. One commonly used instrument for evaluating general health and functional status is the medical outcomes survey short form 36 (MOS). Scores obtained from this instrument are known to vary with chronic diseases and depression. However, the degree to which these health dimensions may be influenced by sleep quality or sleepiness is not well understood. A cross-sectional study was performed on the association between general health status, as determined by the MOS, with sleepiness, assessed using a standardized questionnaire [the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS)] and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). One hundred twenty-nine subjects (68 women), aged 25-65 years, without severe chronic medical or psychiatric illnesses, underwent an overnight sleep study, followed by an MSLT (consisting of a series of four attempts at napping at 2-hour intervals), and completed the MOS and the ESS. The mean MSLT score was 11 +/- 2 minutes, (range 2-20) and the mean ESS score was 10 +/- 5 (range 0-24). Scores for the MOS dimensions “general health perceptions”, “energy/fatigue”, and “role limitations due to emotional problems” were correlated significantly with ESS scores (r = -0.30, -0.41, and -0.30, respectively; p values were all < 0.001). The MSLT was also significantly correlated with “energy/fatigue” (r = -0.19; p < 0.05). After considering the effects of chronic illness and/or body mass index in a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, sleepiness, as assessed by the ESS score, explained 8% of the variance in general health perceptions, 17% of the variance in energy/fatigue, 6% of the variance in the summary measure of well-being, and 3% of the variance in the summary measure of functional status. The variation of MOS scores with sleepiness, unrelated to age or chronic disease, suggests that measures of general health status may be broadly influenced by sleepiness and sleep quality.  These data suggest that 1) sleepiness has an important impact on general health and functional status, specifically influencing self-perceptions regarding energy/fatigue; 2) a more specific assessment of sleepiness in general health evaluations may help explain some of the observed variability in these measures across subjects; and 3) general health measures may be useful in the evaluations of patients with sleep disorders.




Comparison of serum carotenoid responses between women consuming vegetable juice and women consuming raw or cooked vegetables.

McEligot AJ, Rock CL, Shanks TG, Flatt SW, Newman V, Faerber S, Pierce JP.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999 Mar;8(3):227-31.




Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to risk factors for cancer: a report from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study.

Wallstrom P, Wirfalt E, Janzon L, Mattisson I, Elmstahl S, Johansson U, Berglund G.

Public Health Nutr. 2000 Sep;3(3):263-71.




Genetic taste markers and preferences for vegetables and fruit of female breast care patients.

Drewnowski A, Henderson SA, Hann CS, Berg WA, Ruffin MT.

J Am Diet Assoc. 2000 Feb;100(2):191-7.


TITLE: Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH.

AUTHORS: Remer T; Manz FAUTHOR AFFILIATION: Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany.SOURCE: J Am Diet Assoc 1995

Jul;95(7):791-7CITATION IDS: PMID: 7797810 UI: 95318420

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to calculate the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of selected, frequently consumed foods. A physiologically based calculation model was recently validated to yield an appropriate estimate of renal net acid excretion (NAE); the model depends primarily on nutrient intake data. When nutrient data from actual food composition tables were used, the calculation model yielded PRAL values that ranged from an average maximum of 23.6 mEq/100 g for certain hard cheeses over 0 mEq/100 g for fats and oils to an average minimum of approximately -3 mEq/100 g for fruits and fruit juices and vegetables. By means of these PRAL data (summed according to the amounts of foods and beverages consumed daily and by an estimate of excretion of organic acids [based on body size]), the daily NAE can be calculated. This calculation methodology, primarily based on PRAL, allows an appropriate prediction of the effects of diet on the acidity of urine. For practical applicability in dietetic prevention of recurrent urolithiasis or in other fields of dietetics, the additionally determined correlation (r =.83; P < .001) between NAE and urine pH can be used to ascertain NAE target values for a desired urine pH modification.